Tuesday, 6 August 2013

National Anthem

            Every Indian knows what is our National Anthem …! And also knows who has written it..!! Today in the remembrance of a person who wrote it we shall know some more interesting things about our National Anthem. The original meaning of the poem/song is translated to English as below:

“Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,
Dispenser of India's destiny.
Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sindh province/Sindh,
Gujarat and Maratha,
Of the Dravida and Odisha and Bengal;
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,
mingles in the music of Yamuna and  Ganga and is
chanted by the waves of the Indian Ocean.
They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise.
The saving of all people waits in thy hand,
Thou dispenser of India's destiny.
Victory, victory, victory to thee.

                   National Anthem of India is “Jana Gana Mana” written, composed and scored by Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore. It is written in highly sanskritised (Tatsama Bengali). It was first sung in Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress on 27th Dec, 1911. Our National Anthem has a history of 101 years. Poem written by Rabindranath Tagore is translated by Abid Ali into Hindi. It was translated from Bengali to English and also set it to music in Madanapalle of Andhra Pradesh.There were minor differences between the two versions (poem and song) of the National Anthem.

                   Rabindranath Tagore is born on 7th May 1861 in Calcutta, India and died on 7th August 1941. He was the youngest son of Debendranath Tagore, a leader of the Brahmo Samaj, which was a new religious sect in nineteenth-century Bengal and which attempted a revival of the ultimate monistic basis of Hinduism as laid down in the Upanishads. He was educated at home and although at seventeen he was sent to England for formal schooling, he did not finish his studies there. In his mature years, in addition to his many-sided literary activities, he managed the family estates, a project which brought him into close touch with common humanity and increased his interest in social reforms. He also started an experimental school at Shantiniketan where he tried his Upanishad ideals of education. From time to time he participated in the Indian nationalist movement, though in his own non-sentimental and visionary way; and Gandhi, the political father of modern India, was his devoted friend. Tagore was knighted by the ruling British Government in 1915, but within a few years he resigned the honor as a protest against British policies in India.


The controversy raised against our national anthem is when it is firstly sung at the Calcutta congress session. King George V was scheduled to arrive in the city and a section of Anglo Indian English press in the city thought that the anthem is a homage to emperor. People of India were unable to accept it at that moment and this was well answered by the poet Rabindranath Tagore in a letter written in 1939: "I should only insult myself if I cared to answer those who consider me capable of such unbounded stupidity." In another letter to Pulin Behari Sen, Tagore later wrote, "A certain high official in His Majesty's service, who was also my friend, had requested that I write a song of felicitation towards the Emperor. The request simply amazed me. It caused a great stir in my heart. In response to that great mental turmoil, I pronounced the victory in Jana Gana Mana of that Bhagya Vidhata [ed. God of Destiny] of India who has from age after age held steadfast the reins of India's chariot through rise and fall, through the straight path and the curved. That Lord of Destiny, that Reader of the Collective Mind of India, that Perennial Guide, could never be George V, George VI, or any other George. Even my official friend understood this about the song. After all, even if his admiration for the crown was excessive, he was not lacking in simple common sense."

National Anthem Lyrics in different Languages:-

জনগণমন-অধিনায়ক জয় হে.
পঞ্জাব সিন্ধু গুজরাট মরাঠা
দ্রাবিড় উত্কল বঙ্গ
বিন্ধ্য হিমাচল যমুনা গঙ্গা
তব শুভ নামে জাগে
তব শুভ আশিস মাগে,
গাহে তব জয়গাথা |
জনগণমঙ্গলদায়ক জয় হে
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে,
জয় জয় জয়, জয় হে ॥
జన గణ మన అధినాయక జయహే
భారత భాగ్య విధాత
పంజాబ, సింధు, గుజరాత, మరాఠ
ద్రావిడ, ఉత్కళ, వంగ,
వింధ్య, హిమాచల, యమునా, గంగ,
ఉచ్ఛల జలధి తరంగ
తవ శుభ నామే జాగే,
తవశుభ ఆశిష మాగే;
గాహే తవజయ గాథ..
జన గణ మంగళ దాయక జయహే,
భారత భాగ్య విధాత,
జయహే, జయహే, జయహే,
జయ జయ జయ జయహే.
जन-गण-मन अधिनायक जय हे
भारत-भाग्य-विधाता ।
पंजाब सिंध गुजरात मराठा
द्राविड़ उत्कल बंग ।
विंध्य हिमाचल यमुना गंगा,
उच्छल जलधि तरंग ।
तव शुभ नामे जागे,
तव शुभ आशिष माँगे;
गाहे तव जय गाथा ।
जन-गण मंगलदायक जय हे,
भारत-भाग्य-विधाता ।
जय हे, जय हे, जय हे,
जय जय जय, जय हे ।।

جن گن من ادھینایک جے ہے
بھارت بھاگیہ ودھاتا
پنجاب سندھ گجرات مراٹھا
دراوڑ اتکل بنگہ
وندھیہ ہماچل جمنا گنگا
اچھل جلدھی ترنگا
تو شبھ نامے جاگے
تو شبھ آشس ماگے
گاہے تو جے گاتھا
جن گن منگل دایک جے ہے
بھارت بھاگیہ ودھاتا
جے ہے جے ہے جے ہے
جے جے جے جے ہے


ஜன-கண-மன அதிநாயக ஜயகே
பாரத் பாக்ய விதாதா
பஞ்சாப சிந்து குஜராத மராத்தா
திராவிட உத்கல பங்க
விந்திய ஹிமாச்சல யமுனா கங்கா
உச்சல சலதி தரங்க
தவ சுபா நாமே சாகே
தவ சுபா ஆசிச மாகே
காகே தவ செயா காதா
சன கன மங்கள தாயக செயகே
பாரத் பாக்ய விதாதா
செயகே, செயகே, செயகே,
செய செய செய , செயகே
ଜନ ଗଣ ମନ ଅଧୀନାୟକ ଜୟ ହେ,
ଭାରତ ଭାଗ୍ୟ ବିଧାତା ।
ପଞ୍ଜାଵ ସିନ୍ଧୁ ଗୁଜରାଟ ମରାଠା,
ଦ୍ରାଵିଡ଼ ଉତ୍କଳ ବଙ୍ଗ ।
ବିନ୍ଧ୍ୟ ହିମାଚଳ ଯମୁନା ଗଙ୍ଗା,
ଉଚ୍ଛଳ ଜଳଧି ତରଙ୍ଗ ।
ତବ ଶୁଭ ନାମେ ଜାଗେ,
ତବ ଶୁଭ ଆଶିଷ ମାଗେ;
ଗାଏ ତଵ ଜୟ ଗାଥା ।
ଜନ ଗଣ ମଙ୍ଗଳଦାୟକ ଜୟ ହେ,
ଭାରତ ଭାଗ୍ୟ ବିଧାତା ।
ଜୟ ହେ ଜୟ ହେ ଜୟ ହେ ।
ଜୟ ଜୟ ଜୟ ଜୟ ହେ ॥
ಜನ ಗಣ ಮನ ಅಧಿನಾಯಕ ಜಯ ಹೇ
ಭಾರತ ಭಾಗ್ಯ ವಿಧಾತಾ
ಪಂಜಾಬ ಸಿಂಧು ಗುಜರಾತ ಮರಾಥಾ
ದ್ರಾವಿಡ ಉತ್ಕಲ ಭಂಗ
ವಿಂಧ್ಯ ಹಿಮಾಚಲ ಯಮುನಾ ಗಂಗಾ
ಉಚ್ಛಲ ಜಲಧಿ ತರಂಗ
ತವ ಸುಭ ನಾಮೇ ಜಾಗೆ
ತವ ಸುಭ ಅಶಿಸ ಮಾಗೇ
ಗಾಹೇ ತವ ಜಯ ಗಾಥಾ
ಜನ ಗಣ ಮಂಗಳ ಧಾಯಕ ಜಯ ಹೇ
ಭಾರತ ಭಾಗ್ಯ ವಿಧಾತಾ
ಜಯ ಹೇ, ಜಯ ಹೇ, ಜಯ ಹೇ
ಜಯ ಜಯ ಜಯ, ಜಯ ಹೇ.

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