Tuesday, 22 January 2013

64 TraDitionAl aRts of InDiA

  Our Ancient Traditional Arts of India are defined as 64 in number. A small question on the below posted image@FB from my sister( Could You Please Explain) helped me investigating more about this.

History As Said says,Shuka means tropical bird, particularly, parrot.This bird has the special privilege of resting on the right shoulder of Goddess Meenakshi, who is none other than Goddess Raja Matangi also known as Raja Shyamala.This Goddess is the upasana murthi for fine arts,especially music and dance.Meenakshi is identified with Raja Mathangi or manthrini,the minister of SriLalitha Tripura Sundari.The parrot resting on Her shoulder is certainly not a decorative bird,but the celestial partner of the Goddess,imparting knowledge of all the 64 arts to Devi. The saint composer,Sri Syama Sasthri in many of his compositions on Goddess Meenakshi has mentioned Shuka Shyamala(Meenakshi with the parrot). There are many versions of the 64 arts (chatushashti kalas).The abhyantara kalas or secret 64 arts are detailed in the manuals regarding love.

After slaying of Kamsa and the thread ceremony,Lord Krishna and Lord Balrama went to the ashram of Guru Sandipani in the city of Avanti(Ujjain).There within a span of 64 days,Lord Krishna learnt fourteen types of sciences(vidyas) and sixty-four arts(kalas).Generally to learn one science one requires two to two and a half years.Due to the Lord's knowledge of all the sixty-four arts,He probably blessed Sri Shuka Maharishi as thus (while He spoke to the sage's father,Sri Vyasa Maharishi):-"O Sage!Your son is talking like a Shuka(parrot).Hence name this boy as Shukadeva."What prompted the Lord to bless Sri Shuka Maharishi in such a manner.

The extraordinary level of Gnana and wisdom of the sage and his knowledge of the sublime made Lord Krishna to draw the comparison between him and the Shuka(parrot).Sage Shuka's divine gnana was evident while he was in his mother's womb itself. At the beginning Sage Vedavyasa approached sage Jabali, seeking the hand of his daughter,Vatika, in matrimony.After the wedding,Sage Vyasa and his wife Vatika lived amidst forests ,in a lovely hermitage,enjoying marital bliss.Vatika became pregnant and the foetus began to grow in her womb for nearly twelve years without any child being born.

As shastras and vedas were being discussed in the hermitage,the foetus,in the womb of Vatika,used to listen to the discussions and absorb all the information.Not only that,the foetus could also retain all the knowledge within itself.The child gained expertise of Sanga,Vedas,Smriti,Puranas and all the Mukti-shastras .The child used to analyse all the scriptures within the womb itself.

The mother,Vatika ,used to experience extreme pain and discomfort due to the growing womb and no amount of cajoling or coaxing from the father,sage Vyasa, could prompt the child to come out.The foetus declared from the womb that it wanted to attain salvation from within the womb itself, fearing that all the knowledge would dissolve (due to maya)once it takes birth and comes into the world.

The foetus said,"I have taken nearly 84 lakhs of births and am determined to make this my last birth.I am practising yoga and meditation here itself(in the womb) and have no wish to yield to worldly maya by taking birth.Please get Lord Krishna's assurance that I would be unaffected by the maya and I will come out!"Sage Vyasa rushed to bring Lord Krishna to the hermitage and Lord Krishna assured the foetus that He would protect the foetus from illusion (maya).

After birth,the twelve year old boy started walking towards the forests.When sage Vyasa tried to stop him pleading that he needed to perform certain rituals for the welfare of his son,the boy replied-"O great among sages,thousands of rituals were carried out in many of my births.These bondages of rituals submereged me in the illusions of the world"It was then that Lord Krishna named the boy as Shukadeva,because he spoke with the knowledge of a Shuka (parrot).

Lord Krishna who was proficient in the 64 arts,compared the twelve year old boy (who had gained knowledge of all the vidyas and kalas while in his mother's womb itself),to a Shuka,conveying the greatness and significance of a parrot.Such a parrot is held on the right side of Goddess Raja Matangi,who resides as Goddess Meenakshi in Madurai.The parrot is positioned in such a way that its beak is aligned with Devi's right ear.The parrot imparts its knowledge of the 64 kalas to the Goddess.While having darshan of the Goddess in Madurai,it is essential to seek the blessings of the parrot for upliftment in the knowledge of fine arts.I always make it a point to drink in the sight of the dazzling Goddess from head to toe along with Her parrot.I would never miss the parrot, taking a long ,hard look at it before retreating from the sanctum-santorum of the temple.

While interacting with a religiously well-informed practioner,I learnt that there was this mantra (after proper initiation) that could actually materialise the celestial parrot after a few crores of japam(recitation) of the same.Itseems,the parrot would fly around the musician,sit on his-her shoulder,fly on to the veena,dance on the strings, fly back to the player,(even its wings could touch the cheeks of the musician) all the while enhancing the knowledge of the practitioner's art to celestial heights! 

The names and their meanings for all the arts:-

(1) gita — art of singing.
(2) vadya — art of playing on musical instruments.
(3) nritya — art of dancing.
(4) natya — art of theatricals.
(5) alekhya — art of painting.
(6) viseshakacchedya — art of painting the face and body with colored unguents and cosmetics.
(7) tandula-kusuma-bali-vikara — art of preparing offerings from rice and flowers.
(8) pushpastarana — art of making a covering of flowers for a bed.
(9) dasana-vasananga-raga — art of applying preparations for cleansing the teeth, cloths and     painting the body.
(10) mani-bhumika-karma — art of making the jewel garlands.
(11) sayya-racana — art of covering the bed.
(12) udaka-vadya — art of playing on music in water.
(13) udaka-ghata — art of splashing water on ground.
(14) citra-yoga — art of practically applying an admixture of colors.
(15) malya-grathana-vikalpa — art of designing a preparation of wreaths or garlands.
(16) sekharapida-yojana — art of practically setting the coronet on the head.
(17) nepathya-yoga — art of practically dressing
(18) karnapatra-bhanga — art of decorating the tragus of the ear.
(19) sugandha-yukti — art of practical application of aromatics.
(20) bhushana-yojana — art of applying or setting ornaments.
(21) aindra-jala — art of jugglery.
(22) kaucumara — a kind of art.
(23) hasta-laghava — art of sleight of hand.
(24) citra-sakapupa-bhakshya-vikara-kriya — art of preparing varieties of foods - curries, soups, sweetmeats
(25) panaka-rasa-ragasava-yojana — art of preparing palatable drinks and fruit juices
(26) suci-vaya-karma — art of needleworks and weaving.
(27) sutra-krida — art of playing with thread.
(28) vina-damuraka-vadya — art of playing on lute and small x-shaped drum.
(29) prahelika — art of making and solving riddles. (29-a) pratimala — art of caping or reciting verse for verse as a trial for memory or skill.
(30) durvacaka-yoga — art of practicing language difficult to be answered by others.
(31) pustaka-vacana — art of reciting books.
(32) natikakhyayika-darsana — art of enacting short plays and anecdotes.
(33) kavya-samasya-purana — art of solving enigmatic verses.
(34) pattika-vetra-bana-vikalpa — art of designing preparation of shield, cane and arrows.
(35) tarku-karma — art of spinning by spindle.
(36) takshana — art of carpentry.
(37) vastu-vidya — art of engineering.
(38) raupya-ratna-pariksha — art of testing silver and jewels.
(39) dhatu-vada — art of metallurgy.
(40) mani-raga jnana — art of judging jewels.
(41) akara jnana — art of mineralogy.
(42) vrikshayur-veda-yoga — art of practicing medicine or medical treatment, by herbs.
(43) mesha-kukkuta-lavaka-yuddha-vidhi — art of knowing the mode of fighting of lambs, cocks and birds.
(44) suka-sarika-prapalana (pralapana)? — art of maintaining or knowing conversation between male and female cockatoos.
(45) utsadana — art of healing or cleaning a person with perfumes.
(46) kesa-marjana-kausala — art of combing hair.
(47) akshara-mushtika-kathana — art of talking with fingers.
(48) mlecchita-kutarka-vikalpa — art of fabricating barbarous or foreign sophistry.
(49) desa-bhasha-jnana — art of knowing provincial dialects.
(50) pushpa-sakatika-nirmiti-jnana — art of knowing prediction by heavenly voice or knowing preparation of toy carts by flowers.
(51) yantra-matrika — art of mechanics.
(52) dharana-matrika — art of the use of amulets.
(53) samvacya — art of conversation.
(54) manasi kavya-kriya — art of composing verse mentally.
(55) kriya-vikalpa — art of designing a literary work or a medical remedy.
(56) chalitaka-yoga — art of practicing as a builder of shrines
(57) abhidhana-kosha-cchando-jnana — art of the use of lexicography and meters.
(58) vastra-gopana — art of concealment of cloths.
(59) dyuta-visesha — art of knowing specific gambling.
(60) akarsha-krida — art of playing with dice or magnet.
(61) balaka-kridanaka — art of using children’s toys.
(62) vainayiki vidya — art of enforcing discipline.
(63) vaijayiki vidya — art of gaining victory.
(64) vaitaliki vidya — art of awakening master with music at dawn

Though most of us know that 64 arts are available, only few are capable of learning multiple arts. in our busiest times all the way we forget what we love, like really..


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